The tables below show the values of Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) and Poisson's ratio at room temperature for several nonferrous metals used in engineering. The material properties are expressed in average values or in ranges that can vary significantly depending on the processing and of the material's quality. The exact values can be measured by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well at low and high temperatures.

#### Aluminum alloys

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Aluminum alloys | |||

Alloy 1100: |
69 | 10 | 0.33 |

Alloy 2024: |
72.4 | 10.5 | 0.33 |

Alloy 6061: |
69 | 10 | 0.33 |

Alloy 7075: |
71 | 10.3 | 0.33 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material with the Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

- - 1100: equipment for chemical and food industries.
- - 2024: aircraft structures, rivets and truck wheels.
- - 6061: aluminum of naval use, also used in pipes and in ultrasonic transducers for cleaning.
- - 7075: aircraft structures, applications subjected to high voltages and ultrasonic transducers for welding. It is usually available in plates or square bars. It is the most expensive aluminum alloy, worth about four times the value of alloy 6061.

**Main applications:**

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of aluminum alloys can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of exact values is vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

In the case of alloy 7075, when applied in the manufacturing of ultrasonic transducers, the knowledge of sonic velocity is also very important. Sonic velocity is characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing.

#### Cooper alloys

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Copper alloys | |||

C11000 (electrolytic tough pitch): |
115 | 16.7 | 0.33 |

C17200 (beryllium-copper): |
128 | 18.6 | 0.30 |

C26000 (cartridge brass): |
110 | 16 | 0.35 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using the Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

- - C11000: wires and electrical cables.
- - C17200: springs, bushings, valves and diaphragms.
- - C26000: cartridge casings and automotive radiators.

**Main applications:**

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of copper alloys (for example, when estimating the stretching of wires under load) can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of exact values is vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Magnesium alloys

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Magnesium alloys: | |||

Alloy AZ31B: |
45 | 6.5 | 0.35 |

Alloy AZ91D: |
45 | 6.5 | 0.35 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using the Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

- - AZ31B: structures, tubings and cathodic protection.
- - AZ91D: die-cast parts for automobiles and electronic devices.

**Main applications:**

Magnesium alloys are also used in the manufacturing of automotive wheels.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of magnesium alloys can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of exact values is fundamental vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Titanium alloys

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Titanium alloys | |||

Commercially pure: |
103 | 14.6 | 0.34 |

Alloy Ti-5A1-2.5Sn: |
110 | 16 | 0.34 |

Alloy Ti- 6A1-4V: |
114 | 16.5 | 0.34 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using the Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

- - Ti-5A1-2.5Sn: fuselage of aircraft and corrosion-resistant equipment.
- - Ti-6A1-4V: surgical implants and aircraft structural elements.

**Main applications:**

One of the most common applications of Ti-6A1-4V is related to dental implants. In that case, titanium elements receive a surface treatment to improve the biocompatibility and osseointegration.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of titanium alloys can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of the exact values is vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Noble metals

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Noble metals | |||

Gold (Pure): |
77 | 11.2 | 0.42 |

Platinum (Pure): |
171 | 24.8 | 0.39 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using the Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

**Main applications:**

- Gold: electrical contacts and dental restoration.

- Platinum: crucibles, catalyst and thermocouples for elevated temperatures.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of noble metals can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at for low and high temperatures. The knowledge of the exact values is vital to for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Refractory metals

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Refractory metals | |||

Molybdenum (pure): |
320 | 46.4 | 0.32 |

Tantalum (pure): |
185 | 27 | 0.35 |

Tungsten (pure): |
400 | 58 | 0.28 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

**Main applications:**

- Molybdenum: extrusion dies and structural parts in space vehicles.

- Tantalum: corrosion-resistant material and chemical attack.

- Tungsten: incandescent light filaments, x-ray tubes and welding electrodes.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of refractory metals can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of exact values is vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Miscellaneous non-ferrous alloys

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Miscellaneous Nonferrous Alloys | |||

Nikel 200: |
204 | 29.6 | 0.31 |

Inconel 625: |
207 | 30 | 0.31 |

Monel 400: |
180 | 26 | 0.32 |

Haynes alloy 25: |
236 | 34.2 | - |

Invar: |
141 | 20.5 | - |

Super Invar: |
144 | 21 | - |

Kovar: |
207 | 30 | - |

Chemical Lead: |
13.5 | 2 | 0.44 |

Tin (commercially pure): |
44.3 | 6.4 | 0.33 |

Lead-tin solder
(60Sn-40Pb):
(60Sn-40Pb): |
30 | 4.4 | - |

Zinc (commercially pure): |
104.5 | 15.2 | 0.25 |

Zirconium (reactor grade 702): |
99.3 | 14.4 | 0.35 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of these nonferrous alloys can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The knowledge of the exact values is vital for the optimization of the material's use and for the reliability of simulations via finite elements. Elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### References

*ASM Handbooks, Vol. 1 and 2, Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1 and 4, Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th edition, and Advance Materials and Processes, Vol. 146, No.4, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.*

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