Testing of biomaterials and polymers

Sonelastic® Systems are an advanced and non-destructive solution with excellent cost-benefit ratio for elastic moduli and damping characterization of biomaterials and polymers. It characterize the dynamic elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping simultaneously.

Specimens of biomaterials
Specimens of biomaterials ready to be tested by Sonelastic® Systems.

The Sonelastic® Systems employ the Impulse Excitation Technique in accordance with ASTM E1876 and provides highly accurate and reproducible results. The elastic moduli and damping characterization reveals information about the microstructure, presence and evolution of cracks, microcracks and defects in the material, as well as on phase transformations, curing and drying processes. Additionally, elastic moduli characterization contributes to increase the accuracy of finite element analyses (FEA).

Many materials that are difficult to characterize by conventional mechanical tests are easily characterized using the Impulse Excitation Technique with Sonelastic® Systems.
Many materials that are difficult to characterize by conventional mechanical tests are easily characterized using the Impulse Excitation Technique with Sonelastic® Systems. In the image above, porous titanium specimens (scaffold) and an expanded polystyrene foam (EPS / Styrofoam) specimen


Sonelastic® Systems have a wide range of applications for biomaterials and polymers:
  • Characterization of the dynamic elastic moduli to refine finite element analyses (FEA/FEM).
  • Study of degradation by weathering.
  • Evaluation of thermochemical treatments.
  • Study of temperature and mineral fillers influence on mechanical properties.
  • Defects detection.
  • Monitoring of curing and drying processes.
  • Quality control.
Finite element modeling
Restored root canals finite element analysis (FEA) refined with elastic moduli measurements performed using a Sonelastic® System [Image adapted from Diana H.H. et al. Brazilian Dental Journal (2016) 27 (2): 223-227].

Sonelastic® Systems application examples related to biomaterials and polymers

Department of Materials Engineering (DEMa) – UFSCar
Department of Materials Engineering (DEMa) – UFSCar

Application: Pesquisa e desenvolvimento de biomateriais metálicos, incluindo metais porosos (scaffolds).
Contact persons: Prof. Dr. Conrado R. M. Afonso e Prof. Dr. Claudemiro Bolfarini.

Polytechnic University of Valencia, Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineering
Polytechnic University of Valencia, Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineering

Application: R&D of metallic biomaterials produced by powder metallurgy.
Contact person: Prof. Dr. Vicente Amigó Borrás.

MARELLI Electronic Systems and Powertrain – Indaiatuba
MARELLI Electronic Systems and Powertrain – Indaiatuba

Application: Characterization of advanced polymers for finite element analysis (FEA) and optimization of automotive components and systems.
Contact: Eng. Fernando Luiz Windlin.

Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry - FORP/USP
Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry - FORP/USP

Application: Characterization of two modules of elasticity of biomaterials for simulations of distribution of mechanical stresses in dental prostheses.
Contact person: Prof. Dr. Ricardo F. Ribeiro.

São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - FOSJC/UNESP
São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - FOSJC/UNESP

Application: Characterization of two modules of elasticity of biomaterials for the refinement of simulations and analyzes by the finite element method.
Contact person: Prof. Dr. Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges.

Anelasticity and Biomaterials Laboratory - DF/UNESP Bauru
Anelasticity and Biomaterials Laboratory - DF/UNESP Bauru

Application: R&D of titanium alloys for prosthetics and biomedical applications.
Contact person: Prof. Dr. Carlos Roberto Grandini.

LaMaV - Vitreous Materials Laboratory DEMA/UFSCar
LaMaV - Vitreous Materials Laboratory DEMA/UFSCar

Application: Characterization of two elastic moduli of glass-ceramics and bioglasses.
Contact persons: Prof. Dr. Oscar Peitl e Prof. Dr. Edgar Dutra Zanotto.

Examples of publications related to biomaterials and polymers that used Sonelastic® Systems

Lima, Julia Magalhães Costa et al. CAD-FEA modeling and fracture resistance of bilayer zirconia crowns manufactured by the rapid layer technology. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 32, n. 3, pp. 44-55, 2021. ISSN 1806-4760. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202104163.

Nakano, Leonardo Jiro et al. Maximum fracture load and stress concentration in resin-bonded fixed partial dentures of indirect composite resin reinforced by silica-nylon mesh. Journal of Dental Health Oral Disorders and Therapy, 12. 96-101, 2021.

Carolina Catanio Bortolan et al. Effect of oxygen content on the mechanical properties and plastic deformation mechanisms in the TWIP/TRIP Ti-12Mo alloy. Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 817, 2021, 141346, ISSN 0921-5093, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2021.141346.

Laís D. Silva, Fernanda C. Puosso, Viviane O. Soares, Oscar Peitl Filho, Simone do R.F. Sabino, Francisco C. Serbena, Murilo C. Crovace, Edgar D. Zanotto. Two-step sinter-crystallization of K2O–CaO–P2O5–SiO2 (45S5-K) bioactive glass. Ceramics International, Volume 47, Issue 13, 2021, Pages 18720-18731, ISSN 0272-8842, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.03.207.

Santos, R. & Ricci, V. & Afonso, Conrado. (2021). Influence of Swaging on Microstructure, Elastic Modulus and Vickers Microhardness of β Ti-40Nb Alloy for Implants. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 30. 10.1007/s11665-021-05706-3.

G.F. Ramos, N.C. Ramos, L.M.M. Alves, M.R. Kaizer, A.L.S. Borges, T.M.B. Campos, R.M. Melo. Failure probability and stress distribution of milled porcelain-zirconia crowns with bioinspired/traditional design and graded interface. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Volume 119, 2021, 104438, ISSN 1751-6161, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104438.

Silva Dias, C., Rossi, M.C., Apolonio, E.V.P. et al. Low Mg Content on Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy When in Contact with BMMSCs Promotes Improvement of its Biological Functions. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 32, 144 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06620-9

Isabela S. S. L. et al. Mechanical performance of monolithic materials cemented to a dentin-like substrate. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Research And Education, V. 123, Issue 5, P753.E1-753.E7, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.12.021.

Lario Femenia, Joan & Vicente-Escuder, Angel & Amigó, V.. (2021). Evolution of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Ti35Nb2Sn Alloy Post-Processed by Hot Isostatic Pressing for Biomedical Applications. Metals. 11. 1027. 10.3390/met11071027.

Borges ALS, Costa AKF, Dal Piva AMO, Pinto ABA, Tribst JPM. Effect of three different veneering techniques on the stress distribution and in vitro fatigue behavior of core-veneer all-ceramic fixed partial dentures. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2021 Summer; 15(3):188-196. Doi: 10.34172/joddd.2021.032.

Possolli, N. S. et al. Dissolution, bioactivity behavior, and cytotoxicity of 19.58Li2O·11.10ZrO2·69.32SiO2 glass–ceramic. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 110(8), 2022. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34889.

L. C. Meirelles et al. Influence of Preparation Design, Restorative Material and Load Direction on The Stress Distribution of Ceramic Veneer in Upper Central Incisor. Brazilian Dental Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14295/bds.2021.v24i3.2494

M. C. Rossi et al. Physical and biological characterizations of TiNbSn/(Mg) system produced by powder metallurgy for use as prostheses material. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Volume 115, 2021, 104260, ISSN 1751-6161, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104260.

P.H.D. Ferreira, D.C.N. Fabris, M.O.C. Villas Boas, I.G. Bezerra, C.R. Mendonça, E.D. Zanotto. Transparent glass-ceramic waveguides made by femtosecond laser writing. Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 136, 2021, 106742, ISSN 0030-3992, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106742.

L. Romero-Resendiz, P. Gómez-Sáez, A. Vicente-Escuder, V. Amigó-Borrás. Development of Ti–In alloys by powder metallurgy for application as dental biomaterial . Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Volume 11, 2021, Pages 1719-1729, ISSN 2238-7854, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.02.014.

J. E. Torrento et al. Processing and properties of Ti-15Zr-15Mo-(1-3)Ag alloys for applications as biofunctional materials. Revista Brasileira de Aplicações de Vácuo. V. 40 n. 1, 2021. https://doi.org/10.17563/rbav.v40.1189

Fiorin L, Moris ICM, Faria ACL, Ribeiro RF, Rodrigues RCS. Effect of different grinding protocols on surface characteristics and fatigue behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystalline: An in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent. 2020 Oct;124(4):486.e1-486.e8. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.03.016.

Kuroda, P. A. B., Quadros, F. F., Afonso, C. R. M. et al. The Effect of Solution Heat Treatment Temperature on Phase Transformations, Microstructure and Properties of Ti-25Ta-xZr Alloys Used as a Biomaterial. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 29, 2410–2417 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-04770-5.

KURODA, PEDRO AKIRA BAZAGLIA; DE FREITAS QUADROS, FERNANDA; SOUSA, KAROLYNE DOS SANTOS JORGE; DONATO, Tatiani Ayako Goto; DE ARAÚJO, RAUL OLIVEIRA; Grandini, Carlos Roberto. Preparation, structural, microstructural, mechanical and cytotoxic characterization of as-cast Ti-25Ta-Zr alloys. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN MEDICINE, v. 31, p. 19, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-019-6350-7

FARIA, D.L.; CRUZ, T.M.; MESQUITA JUNIOR, L.; DUARTE, P. J.; MENDES, L. M.; GUIMARAES JUNIOR, J. B. Number of laminae on the mechanical behavior of glued laminated timber (glulam) of Toona ciliata produced with vegetable polyurethane adhesive. CIÊNCIA E AGROTECNOLOGIA (ONLINE), v. 43, p. 1-8, 2019. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-7054201943014819

MIRANDA, JEAN SOARES; DE CARVALHO, RONALDO LUÍS ALMEIDA; DE CARVALHO, RODRIGO FURTADO; BORGES, ALEXANDRE LUIS S.; BOTTINO, MARCO ANTÔNIO; ÖZCAN, MUTLU; MELO, RENATA MARQUES DE; SOUZA, RODRIGO OTHÁVIO DE ASSUNÇÃO E. Effect of different loading pistons on stress distribution of a CAD/CAM silica-based ceramic: CAD-FEA modeling and fatigue survival analysis. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, v. 94, p. 207-212, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.03.011

BARBON, FABÍOLA JARDIM; MORAES, RAFAEL R.; ISOLAN, Cristina Pereira; SPAZZIN, ALOÍSIO ORO; BOSCATO, NOÉLI. Influence of inorganic filler content of resin luting agents and use of adhesive on the performance of bonded ceramic. JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY, v. 122, p. 566, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.09.013

ELIAS, CARLOS NELSON; FERNANDES, DANIEL JOGAIB; SOUZA, FRANCIELLY MOURA DE; MONTEIRO, EMÍLIA DOS SANTOS; BIASI, RONALDO SÉRGIO DE. Mechanical and clinical properties of titanium and titanium-based alloys (Ti G2, Ti G4 cold worked nanostructured and Ti G5) for biomedical applications. Journal of Materials Research and Technology-JMR&T, v. 8, p. 1060-1069, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.07.016

CORREA, G; BRONDANI LP; WANDSCHER VF; PEREIRA, GK; VALANDRO LF; BERGOLI, CD. Influence of remaining coronal thickness and height on biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth: survival rates, load to fracture and finite element analysis. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ORAL SCIENCE (ONLINE), v. 26, p. 1-11, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2017-0313

M.T. SOUZA, G. PENARRIETA-JUANITO, B. HENRIQUES , F.S. SILVA, A.P. NOVAES DE OLIVEIRA , J.C.M. SOUZA. Lithium-zirconium silicate glass-ceramics for restorative dentistry: Physicochemical analysis and biological response in contact with human osteoblast. Materialia (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2018.07.020

SCHWANTZ, JÚLIA K.; OLIVEIRA-OGLIARI, ALINE; MEEREIS, CARINE T.; LEAL, FERNANDA B.; OGLIARI, FABRÍCIO A.; MORAES, RAFAEL R. Characterization of Bis-Acryl Composite Resins for Provisional Restorations . Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 28, p. 354-361, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201601418

GOMES, E. A. et al. Reliability of FEA on the Results of Mechanical Properties of Materials. Braz. Dent. J. 2015, vol.26, n.6, pp.667-670. ISSN 0103-6440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201300639

Silva, l.H. et al., FEA and microstructure characterization of a one-piece Y-TZP abutment. Dental Materials, Volume 30, Issue 11, 2014, Pages e283-e288. ISSN 0109-5641, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2014.05.016

RIPPE, Marilia Pivetta et al. Root Canal Filling: Fracture Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Composite-Restored Roots and Finite Element Analysis. Braz. Dent. J.. 2013, vol.24, n.6, pp.619-625. ISSN 0103-6440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201301996

DIANA, H. H. et al. Stress Distribution in Roots Restored with Fiber Posts and An Experimental Dentin Post: 3D-FEA. Braz. Dent. J.. 2016, vol.27, n.2, pp.223-227. ISSN 0103-6440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201600666

CANEPPELE T.M.F. et al. Bond strength of composite repairs using flowable, conventional resins or the association of both. Braz Dent Sci 2012 out./dez.; 15 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.14295/bds.2012.v15i4.855

Martins Júnior, J.R.S., Matos, A.A., Oliveira, R.C., Buzalaf, M.A.R., Costa, I., Rocha, L.A., Grandini, C.R., 2017. Preparation and characterization of alloys of the Ti–15Mo–Nb system for biomedical applications. J Biomed Mater Res Part B 2017:00B:000–000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.33868

P. R. Monich, F. V. Berti, L. M. Porto, B. Henriques, A. P. Novaes de Oliveira, M. C. Fredel, J. C.M. Souza. Physicochemical and biological assessment of PEEK composites embedding natural amorphous silica fibers for biomedical applications. Materials Science & Engineering C (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.031

NERY, F., GEMELLI, E., CAMARGO, N.H.A., HENRIQUES, V.A.R.. Preparação e caracterização de um biocompósito obtido pela mistura de hidreto de titânio com nitrato de cálcio para implantes dentários. Matéria (Rio J.). 2016, vol.21, n.3, pp.742-755. ISSN 1517-7076.

Discover the Sonelastic® Systems:
Sonelastic® system for small specimens
Sonelastic® system for medium specimens
Sonelastic® system for large specimens
Sonelastic® Custom System and quotation